The pancreas (the organ behind the stomach) naturally releases insulin hormone to help the body store and consume the sugar and fat from the food you eat. if one of the following happens diabetes occurs:
- The pancreas does not secrete insulin
- The amount of insulin secreted by the pancreas is not enough
- The body does not respond well to insulin. This condition is called “insulin resistance”
Diabetes is a lifelong disease. About one-third of people with diabetes are not aware that they have the disease. However, there is no cure for this condition. People with diabetes need to control the disease to stay healthy.
More than 425 million people all around the world have diabetes; Most of these patients are suffering from type 2 diabetes, which can be easily controlled with regular physical activity and a healthy diet.
More than 230 million people in Asia have diabetes. Given the prevalence of obesity and the rapid adaptation to the Western lifestyle in Asia, the number of people with diabetes is predicted to reach more than 355 million by 2040.
Type 1 diabetes
Type 1 diabetes occurs when the cells in the pancreas (called beta cells) that are responsible for producing insulin are killed by the immune system. As a result, no insulin is produced in these people, so they must inject insulin to control their blood sugar. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disorder in which immune cells stop producing insulin by destroying beta cells.
Type 1 diabetes usually occurs in people under the age of 20, but it can occur at any age.
Type 2 diabetes
People with type 2 diabetes, unlike type 1 diabetes, produce insulin. However, either the insulin secreted by the pancreas is not enough or the body is resistant to insulin. When insulin levels are insufficient or insulin is not used properly, glucose does not enter the body’s cells.
Type 2 diabetes is the most common type of diabetes. While many of these are preventable, complications of diabetes, such as vision loss, non-traumatic amputation, and chronic kidney failure that require dialysis, have plagued many adults.
Type 2 diabetes usually occurs in people over 40 who are overweight, but it can also occur in people who are not overweight. Due to the increasing obesity of young people, type 2 diabetes is also seen among children today, which is sometimes referred to as “progressive adult diabetes”.
Some can control type 2 diabetes by controlling their weight, monitoring their diet and exercising regularly. But sometimes it is necessary to use pills that help the body use insulin better or to inject insulin.
Doctors can often diagnose type 2 diabetes before it occurs. This condition, called pre-diabetes, occurs when a person has high blood sugar levels above normal, but not enough to be diagnosed with type 2 diabetes.
What Information Do You Need to Know about COVID-19 If You Have Diabetes?
Preliminary data suggest that people with diabetes or any other underlying disease are more likely to develop severe coronary heart disease. Researchers are studying how the coronavirus affects the immune system and believe that patients with diabetes are no more at risk than non-diabetics; Instead, they experience more severe symptoms if they do.
These patients are more likely to develop various infections, including respiratory infections, and are more likely to have severe infections because high blood sugar reduces the ability of immune cells to fight infection. Therefore, people with high blood sugar are more susceptible to lung infections due to a weakened immune system. However, there is still no complete information about the possible link between controlled blood sugar and Covid 19.
How do diabetics take care of themselves?
If you have type 2 or 1 diabetes, do the following:
- Wash your hands with soap and water for at least 20 seconds before preparing and eating food, caring for children and the sick, using the toilet, and attending public places.
- Mask in public places. Of course, you do not need to use N95 masks. Because this type of mask is needed by the treatment staff.
- Observe a distance of at least one and a half meters. If you get sick, quarantine yourself at home.
- Always have insulin, glucometer, ketone test strips and glucose tablets at home.
- If you are taking blood pressure medications such as angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), continue taking them unless your doctor tells you otherwise.
- If you have the disease, take herbal medicines such as acetaminophen.
If you have diabetes and coronary heart disease:
- It is best for people with diabetes to plan what to do before they get the coronavirus, such as having the phone number of their healthcare provider.
- Have adequate sources of medications and supplies to monitor blood sugar at home, so that they do not have to go out if they are sick or only do so when the local pharmacy is open.
- Patients may lose control of their blood sugar during the course of the disease if they become infected. They need to practice the “daily rules” recommended for each stressful situation to compensate for their diabetes.
- If infected, patients should monitor their blood sugar several times a day, re-prescribe their medications (especially insulin) and do whatever may be necessary in their medications or diet, and contact their healthcare provider.
- Covid 19 disease can cause dehydration by increasing blood pressure. So drink plenty of water and measure your blood pressure and tell your doctor.
- Check your blood sugar regularly and if it is higher than 250 gmg /dL you may be at risk for ketoacidosis. A condition in which the body produces too much ketone by burning fat to produce energy, which may be toxic to the body. It is important to have low levels of ketones in the blood during Covid 19 disease.
- Prioritize managing and improving your emotions
- Since stress raises blood sugar, control your stress by doing fun things, taking deep breaths, or talking to a friend.
- Get enough sleep, exercise as much as you can, and use technology to connect with friends or family.