In physiological and pathological circumstances, the interaction between thyroid hormone activity and the immune system has been demonstrated. Their link, however, is complicated and still not fully understood. Here is all you need to know about the link between hypothyroidism and immune system.
What exactly is hypothyroidism?
The most frequent kind of thyroid problem is hypothyroidism. It indicates that your thyroid gland is not working properly. This small gland is located at the base of your neck. Its function is to produce thyroid hormone. Thyroid hormone may not be produced in sufficient quantities if the gland is underactive.
Impact on body
Thyroid hormones regulate how your body utilizes energy to perform its functions. These hormones have an impact on practically every organ in your body. When your thyroid produces insufficient amounts of these hormones, components of your body slow down.
Innate immune cells, mostly granulocytes and natural killer cells, serve as the initial line of defense. Antigen presentation cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells then capture, process, and present antigens (both self and foreign) to naive T lymphocytes in secondary lymphoid organs, where adaptive immunity develops.
The effects of TH on immune system
The current understanding of the effects of TH as well as thyroid status on innate immunity aids in understanding the complex adaptive responses achieved with profound implications in immunopathology, such as inflammation, cancer, and autoimmunity, at the crossroads of the immune and endocrine systems.
THs and innate immune functions
The link between THs and innate immune cells is complicated. Cellular and molecular signaling pathways involved in the crosstalk between THs and innate immune functions, as well as their role in directing adaptive immunity, have profound implications in immunopathology, including cancer and autoimmune manifestations of the thyroid gland, which is located at the intersection of the immune and endocrine systems.
The etiopathogenic process involved in immune-related thyroid diseases as well as immunological illnesses caused by thyroid dysfunction is now better recognized. Further study, with a focus on specific cell subsets, will give essential tools for modulating the immunogenic capacity of innate immune cells to either favorably regulate the establishment of protective immunity or negatively control the creation of autoimmune thyroid inflammation.
What factors contribute to hypothyroidism?
An autoimmune illness is the most prevalent cause of hypothyroidism. This implies that your immune system perceives your normal tissues as foreign and begins to assault itself. It produces antibodies directed at the thyroid gland. White blood cells and scar tissue have taken over the normal thyroid cells. Another possibility is that you are being treated for an overactive thyroid gland. It is possible that radioactive iodine treatment or surgery will be used. Hypothyroidism can also develop shortly after giving birth.
Secondary hypothyroidism is a disorder that can occur at times. It occurs when your pituitary gland ceases to function. It should be noted that the pituitary gland do not instructs the thyroid gland to produce some specific kinds of these thyroid hormones. At birth, newborns are checked for hypothyroidism.
How is hypothyroidism identified?
Your healthcare practitioner will inquire about your medical history. You will also require a physical examination. Blood testing can also aid in the diagnosis of hypothyroidism. They can detect the presence of thyroid hormone and thyroid-stimulating hormones in your blood. Other blood tests can detect antibodies, which are chemicals that assault the thyroid gland.
What is the treatment for hypothyroidism?
The treatment which you might receive can be determined by the symptoms such as the age or overall health. The objective of therapy is to restore your thyroid hormone levels to normal. You may need to take medication that contains thyroid hormones. This dose may have to be adjusted over time.
Thyroid hormone replacement
You will very certainly have to take this medication for the rest of your life. Follow-up blood tests will be required to ensure that you are taking the right amount of thyroid hormone replacement. Before switching medication brands, always consult with your healthcare professional.
When should I contact my physician?
Inform your doctor if your symptoms worsen or if you develop new ones. If you are a woman of reproductive age and wish to become pregnant, you should first consult with your healthcare professional.