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Novartis is a multinational pharmaceutical company based in Basel, Switzerland, the second-largest pharmaceutical company in the world in terms of sales. Novartis Company is active in producing drugs such as clozapine, diclofenac, carbamazepine, valsartan, cyclosporine, methylphenidate (Ritalin), terbinafine, etc. In 2010, the company’s sales were estimated at $ 46.806 billion.


Novartis Pharmaceutical Company was formed in 1996 through the merger of Ciba-Geigy and Sandoz. Both companies are ancient, and together, Novartis has a massive history of 250 years.

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Ciba-Geigy was founded in 1971 following the merger of Ciba and Geigy, one of the oldest manufacturers of chemicals and drugs in Switzerland and the world.

Geigy started trading in minerals and chemicals, paints and medicines in Basel, Switzerland, in 1758 by Johann Rudolf Geigy-Gmosus (1733-1793). In 1857, Johann Rudolf Geigy-Marian (1830-1917) took control of the company and, with Johann Müller-Pak, opened the Geigy paint factory. The chemicals produced by this company were used in silk dyeing.
In 1939, Paul Hermann Müller, a chemist at Geigy, discovered that DDT was effective against malaria-carrying insects. He won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1948 for this discovery.

It was founded in 1859 by Alexander Colwell (1805-1873). The company began operations with the construction of a fuchsin plant in Basel. In 1873, Clowell sold the plant and all of his company assets to Bundschdler & Bosch, which later changed its name to Basel Chemical Industries. Then, in 1945, the company was renamed Ciba, which, after 26 years, finally merged with Geigy in 1971 to form Ciba Geigy.

Sandoz Ag
In 1895, after Kern died, the whole company reached Sandoz, where he developed the drug antipyrine to reduce fever. Four years later, saccharin was produced by Sandoz as a substitute for sugar. Other pharmaceutical research of the company began in 1917 under Professor Arthur Stoll (1887-1971).

In 1996, the two companies merged to form Novartis. Novartis initially reorganized its units. In 1998, in collaboration with the School of Microbiology at the University of California, Berkeley began obtaining various biotechnology licenses. The company’s agricultural sector merged with Astrazenka in 2003 to form a new company, Syngenta. In 2005, Novartis bought the German pharmaceutical company Hexal and the American company Eun Labels for 5.6 billion euros. Experts on the stock exchange of pharmaceutical companies believe that the decision made by Novartis Pharmaceutical Company is big but strategically conscious. The pharmaceutical company Hexal had revenue of $ 1.6 billion in 2004 and had 7,000 employees.

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