Severe acute respiratory syndrome: sars-cov-2
The newest member of this group, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), was first detected in late 2019 in Hubei province, China. Since then, this new coronavirus has spread around the world causing a pandemic; the respiratory illness caused by the virus is called coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Here is everything you need to know about severe acute respiratory syndrome: sars-cov-2.
One thing you need to know about severe acute respiratory syndrome: sars-cov-2 is that although the lungs are believed to be the site where SARS-CoV-2 replicates, infected patients often report other symptoms, suggesting involving the gastrointestinal tract, heart, cardiovascular system, kidneys and others. It is important to note that three of the seven CoVs appeared in the 21st century and are associated with severe acute respiratory infections.
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Severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV (SARS-CoV) appeared in late 2002 in Guangdong province, China, and rapidly spread to other countries and continents, accounting for around 8,000 confirmed cases and a mortality rate.
9.6%. SARS-CoV is a beta-coronavirus that originated in horseshoe bats and then spread to the wild animal population, including palm civets, in China; the virus adapted and was eventually transmitted to humans through direct animal-human contact. One thing you need to know about severe acute respiratory syndrome: sars-cov-2 is that although human-to-human transmission of the virus was effective, the epidemic ended in May 2004 due to the seasonality of the virus and the sanitary measures imposed; since then, no case of SARS-CoV has been reported. Like SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV originates from bats, but camels have been identified as intermediate hosts.
It is not yet clear how the virus was transmitted between these animals, and it can be speculated that another intermediate host may have been involved. One thing you need to know about severe acute respiratory syndrome: sars-cov-2 is that although person-to-person transmission of MERS-CoV accounts for almost half of cases, it is limited to homes or nosocomial outbreaks, and close and prolonged contact is required.
Despite this, the MERS has recorded around 2,400 cases in the last 8 years, with a worrying mortality rate of 34%. These two highly pathogenic coronaviruses caught the attention of researchers and sparked a series of studies on the potential of zoonotic coronaviruses to cause pandemics in humans.
The discovery of a large number of SARS-like coronaviruses in bats in Yunnan, China, led to the conclusion that we might encounter the SARS virus again. In fact, 2019 brought us such a novel zoonotic coronavirus that it appears to be a close relative of the 2002 SARS-CoV. The virus, initially named “2019-nCoV”, belongs to the group of SARS-like viruses and shares 86% homology at the nucleotide level with the first SARS-CoV detected.
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Fever, cough, and fatigue
The disease caused by the virus has been called coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The clinical picture ranges from asymptomatic, with mild respiratory tract infections and flu-like symptoms (mainly fever, cough, and fatigue), to severe illness with lung damage, multiple organ failure, and death (18, 19). Not surprisingly, the lungs are the main portal of infection; however, SARS-CoV-2 RNA has been detected in kidney, liver, heart, brain, and blood samples during autopsy.
This is in accordance with reports showing that COVID-19 patients frequently exhibit other symptoms, suggesting multi-organ involvement and a rare but serious complication of SARS-CoV-2 replication, which is a syndrome. Multi systemic inflammatory disease (MIS) in children (MIS -C) and adults (MIS-A).