What is a kidney stone?

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What is a kidney stone?

What is a kidney stone?

What is a kidney stone?

When the kidneys are filtering blood waste, it produces urine and excretes waste through it. Sometimes, the salts and minerals in the urine do not get out of the kidneys and stick together to form kidney stones. The size of a kidney stone can vary from the size of a sugar bead to the size of a ping-pong ball. Usually, people do not notice the presence of these stones in their kidneys unless the stones block the urethra. If these stones break the ureters, they cause severe pain.

Types of kidney stones

Knowing the type of kidney stones will help determine the cause of the kidney stones (or whether the kidneys are stone-forming), and through this, your doctor will learn important things about how to prevent kidney stones from forming again.

Calcium stones: Most kidney stones are calcium and usually in the form of calcium oxalate. Oxalate is a natural substance found in food and is produced by the liver daily. Some fruits and vegetables, nuts as well as chocolate are high in oxalate. Dietary factors, high doses of vitamin D, gastric bypass surgery, and some metabolic disorders can increase the amount of calcium or oxalate in the urine.

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Calcium stones may also be in the form of calcium phosphate, and calcium phosphate stones are usually formed due to metabolic diseases such as proximal renal tube acidosis. The formation of cesium phosphate stones can be associated with some migraine headaches, the use of seizure drugs such as topiramate.

Struvite stones: Struvite stones are caused by infections such as urinary tract infections. These stones can grow and enlarge quickly and at the same time cause very few warning signs.

Uric acid stones: These stones often occur in people who drink fewer fluids, lose many body fluids, have a high-protein diet, and suffer from gout. Some genetic factors can also play a role in the formation of these types of stones.

Cysteine stones: These stones form in people who have a hereditary history of a certain type of disease, which causes the kidneys to secrete a certain type of amino acid. This amino acid is called cystinuria and causes the formation of cysteine stones.

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